Few studies examined the association between time-of-day of nutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome. Our goal was to compare a weight loss diet with high caloric intake during breakfast to an isocaloric diet with high caloric intake at dinner.
Design and Methods:
Overweight and obese women (BMI 32.4±1.8 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized into two isocaloric (?1400kcal) weight loss groups, a breakfast (BF) (700kcal breakfast, 500kcal lunch, 200kcal dinner) or a dinner (D) group (200kcal breakfast, 500kcal lunch, 700kcal dinner) for twelve weeks.
The BF group showed greater weight loss and waist circumference reduction. Although fasting glucose, insulin and ghrelin were reduced in both groups, fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR decreased significantly to a greater extent in the BF group. Mean triglyceride levels decreased by 33.8% in the BF group, but increased by 14.4% in the D group. Oral glucose tolerance test led to a greater decrease of glucose and insulin in the BF. In response to meal challenges, the overall daily glucose, insulin, ghrelin and mean hunger scores were significantly lower, whereas mean satiety scores were significantly higher in the BF group. It was also proved that exercises on an empty stomach in the evening are more useful for those who tries to lose weight. Exercises on the empty stomach are known to activate lipolysis. It is also known that the body temperature is higher in the afternoon that’s why training is more effective.
High-calorie breakfast with reduced intake of calories at dinner is beneficial and might be a useful alternative for the management of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Exercises in the afternoon are more effective than at any other time.