Zyprexa and Psychosis

Zyprexa (olanzapine) is a medication classified as an atypical antipsychotic. It is used to treat certain mental/mood conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The term “psychosis’’ refers to a number of neurological ailments. Schizophrenia is a certain type of psychosis characterized mainly by clear perception but a marked thinking disturbance.

Schizophrenia 

Schizophrenia is an intellectual condition characterized by disintegration of cognitive functions as well as psychological responsiveness. It often exhibits itself as hearing hallucinations, paranoid or unconventional delusions, or disorganized speech; it’s also associated with substantial social or work-related inability. The onset of signs and symptoms typically takes place in early maturity. Medical diagnosis is dependent on viewed behavior, as well as the patient’s noted occurrences.

 Schizophrenia is usually referred to with regards to negative and positive signs or symptoms. Positive symptoms are the ones that most people don’t typically encounter however are specific to individuals with schizophrenia. They might consist of delusions, disordered thinking and speech patterns, and responsive, auditory, visual, gustatory and olfactory hallucinations, usually considered to be manifestations of psychosis. Hallucinations can also be commonly linked to the information of the delusional concept. Positive symptoms typically comply well with medications. Negative symptoms include loss of typical cognitive functions, and react much less well to treatment. They frequently consist of flat or blunted affect and feelings, poor speech, inability to encounter satisfaction, insufficient need to create relationships, and deficit of motivation. Studies suggest that negative symptoms lead much more to low quality of living, practical impairment, and also the impediment on others, compared to positive indicators. Individuals with notable negative symptoms usually have a medical history of mediocre realignment prior to the start of the condition, and reaction to medications is often restricted (Velligan et al., 2003).

 

Inherited genes, early childhood environment, neurobiology, and mental and interpersonal procedures seem to be crucial contributory causes; some recreational and prescribed drugs apparently trigger or aggravate conditions. Present scientific studies are centered on neurobiology role, even though not one isolated natural cause has been discovered. The numerous probable mixtures of symptoms have brought on discussion about whether or not the medical diagnosis signifies just one condition or perhaps a variety of discrete syndromes.

 The proper diagnosis of schizophrenia is dependent on requirements in both the Manual of Mental Disorders and American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic, version DSM-IV-TR, and the ICD-10 of WHO’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. These types of requirements make use of self-reported activities of the individual and noted irregularities in behavior, accompanied by a medical evaluation by a psychological medical expert (Kapur, 2009).

 Zyprexa

 Zyprexa (olanzapine), which is an atypical antipsychotic, belongs to the class of thienobenzodiazepines that are primarily used to treat schizophrenia. Its molecular weight is 312.44 and its molecular formula is C17H20N4S. Olanzapine is chemically named 2-methyl-4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-10H-thieno [2,3-b] [1,5] benzodiazepine.

Mechanisms of action

 The mode of action of olanzapine, much similarly to some other drugs having effectiveness in schizophrenia, is unclear. It is speculated, however, that this drug’s efficaciousness in schizophrenia is mediated by its antagonising action on both serotonin type 2 (5HT2) and dopamine receptors.

 Olanzapine provides a greater affinity for 5-HT2 serotonin receptors than D2 dopamine receptors. Similar to most of the atypical antipsychotics, Zyprexa has low affinity for histamine, cholinergic muscarinic, as well as alpha-adrenergic receptors. In addition, it has low affinity for benzodiazepine receptors that happen to be bringing about its sedating properties.


Clinical trials

A recent research demonstrated that olanzapine was tolerated better and prevented mania relapse more effectively than lithium, a drug frequently used to treat schizophrenia. Olanzapine was also better than lithium at preventing mixed episodes, but notably found no difference in the prevention of depression (Vogin, 2003). Another preclinical study conducted by Meltzner et al. (2008) showed that olanzapine is a practicable choice for treatment-resistant individuals who cannot use clozapine.

 Olanzapine is effective against negative, as well as positive symptoms. Olanzapine-fluoxetine combination (OFC) has an FDA indication for the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

 
Dosage

 Zyrexa’s minimum effective therapeutic dose is 5 mg and usually ranges from 10 to 30 mg daily doses (Potter et.al, 2007).

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